High-Frequency Stimulation for Parkinson’s Disease and Effects on Pathways in Basal Ganglia Network Model
Deep brain stimulation of nuclei in the basal ganglia has been recognized as the most effective neurosurgical therapy for hypokinesia in patients with Parkinson’s disease; however, the mechanism underlying its curative effect remains unknown. In addition, the known effects of the two major pathways of the basal ganglia on the thalamus can offer information on optimal targets for further exploration and research. To simulate high-frequency stimulation to the different targets in Parkinson’s disease, a cortico-basal-thalamic network model was constructed based on the biological principles of anatomical structures and utilization of conductance-based models. Taking three different nucleus regions as targets, we simulated and analyzed the diversity of different stimulus durations and periods, along with stimulus efficacy, for the three targets. Then, by adopting different stimulus magnitudes that acted on the three targets, a comparative analysis of the effects of different stimulus magnitudes and targets for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease was performed. To identify the optimal target, different effects of the two major pathways on the thalamus were calculated. The calculation results show that the cortico-basal-thalamic network is reliable, and through the use of feasible models, high-frequency stimulation of the three targets can improve the pathological thalamic rhythmicity. It is shown that the direct pathway excites the thalamus, while the indirect pathway plays a regulatory role in the thalamus.